Category Archives: open social learning
So we all know about physical capital, money, equipment, and everyone can talk with ease about human capital, education, training etc. We all recognize that one can derive value out of both physical and human capital. What about social capital? Social capital is the sum of your socialness, your friends, people you interact with, you ability to influence their decisions, all put together. Very interestingly there are several initiatives bubbling up in the market that are trying to capture the essence of social capital and to make money out of that notion. Klout and similarly misspelt, Kred are new ventures into monetization of social capital.
But what of education? Does a student’s social capital in any way enhance his learning gains? His education? The attainment of his goals? And if a student builds social capital, will he then derive value from it?
Hua Ai and I report on some living lab studies with OpenStudy’s 80K learners in George Siemens’ Change Mooc 11. Interestingly, the act of building social capital alone motivated some learners to persist in the learning ecosystem. As they solved problems, helped someone, participated in discussions and other learning related activities, they leveled up, won medals, achievements, fans, and built social capital.
I am willing to put a stake in the ground and say that the pursuit of building social capital, can lead to enhanced retention and then improved learning. Of course the environment for building this social capital has to be about learning. Building social capital on Facebook is a very different game! But in a learning ecosystem like OpenStudy where the rewards, activities and conversations are about learning in Math or Biology, there is an observable correlation. And that is exciting. And it brings real value to the learner. Whether they will recognize it or not, it brings real value to education.
This social capital can and should be valuable as badges, as documentation of skills and competencies, as an e-portfolio, all existing examples, but now ready to take on a new twist. Whether the world of higher ed is ready or not, social capital for education is arriving and will be here to stay.
“Hi, my name is amistre64, and I am a mathaholic.
Why do I use OpenStudy? I came across it in March. It was free and looked like something I could use to both teach and learn about math, and math related accessories
I used to be in construction work, but now I am going to college to get a Master’s in math to become a college math teacher.”
Amistre is on OpenStudy a lot. He is always there. He has achieved the level of 100, the highest attainable level on OpenStudy. There are few at this level. He will help you only if you care to learn. The “Give me an answer and let me be gone” attitude does not work for him. His explanations in calculus are a joy to behold. Here’s an image of an explanation, midway through one of his conversations. You can see the entire conversation here
Why does he do it? His answer is, quite simply, “to help”. Amistre is proof that altruism still thrives, that people passionate about learning are willing to teach our hapless teens. We don’t pay Amistre. The community “pays” him through their regard and appreciation.
He has over 800 fans, which means there are hundreds of students on our system who appreciate him, who gave him a signal of their regard and respect, who want to get to know him. When someone appreciates his help, they give him a medal. He has earned that again and again, more than 6,000 times in Math.
What does that tell us? In contrast to reports of high schoolers’ apathy to math and to studying, we have evidence that high schoolers do care about learning. When provided the right framework, when someone takes the time to talk to them and help them solve a math problem, they truly appreciate it. With typical teenage fervor, they shower Amistre with tokens of their appreciation. By “fanning” him they are saying that he is a Rock Star of Math—the Justin Bieber of Math Help on OpenStudy!
For me, every time a kid thanks Amistre, I see another vote for learning. The way Amistre sees it, every time he gets a medal, he turns the light bulb on for a kid, and he’s got his reward.
Sasogeek put that comment on OpenStudy, unasked and unsolicited. You can see it for yourself.
As I read his note, I was reminded of Lave and Wenger’s work on Communities of Practice.
I first came across Lave and Wenger’s work in the Gilfus publications (thank you Stephen Gilfus and the smart people at Gilfus Foundation) and we consciously tried to articulate and build these principles into the social learning platform of OpenStudy.
Lave and Wenger explained their concept with an example of tribes gathering to learn some skill like hunting the sabre-toothed tiger. “Communities of practice are formed by people who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavor. “ In a Community of Practice, a group of people who share a passion for something get together to learn how to do it better (see the blog, http://www.ewenger.com/theory/).
An effective Community of Practice integrates three elements: (i) The Domain. The group has a shared domain of interest, which gives it an identity and gives rise to the concept of Membership. Members are committed to the domain and share their competencies with others in the group. (ii) The Community. Members have to work together, help each other, and share information, interact and build relationships that enable them to learn from each other. (iii) The Practice. Members of a community of practice are practitioners. They develop a shared repertoire of resources: experiences, stories, tools, ways of addressing recurring problems—in short, a shared practice. This takes time and sustained interaction (from Wenger’s website).
And voilá, that is what has happened in Saso’s case.
He is now a member of a marvelous, completely online community of practice, a global, online, virtual community, where no one has seen the other, that transcends geography, race, and politics. Everyday Saso gets online from Ghana to discuss math and computer science with his online friends. Somehow through these unscripted interactions, with no “teacher” or official “advisor”, no College provided “mentor” or Advising Office, he has gained the confidence to take his test. As an educator, I find that humbling. This community has empowered its members in the best tradition of the “Houses” of Harvard or Yale or Princeton!
There are 70,000 registered users of OpenStudy in over 500 study groups. Their call to action is to seek help and to give help. And though some flit in for an answer and out again, many remain to band together and grow into a true community of practice. They help one another, advise, support, sympathize, encourage, serve as role models—in short, offer everything we would want our students to encounter. I am convinced the online nature of this environment, the 24/7 availability of this community, the easy informality, maybe even the lack of prominent power figures all contribute to fostering this new manifestation of a community of practice. But what blows me away is that help is now within reach for all those who cannot go to a Harvard or a Yale, who work two jobs and then go to school, who cannot linger after class to seek the advice of an instructor, or who are taking courses online with no study hall to meet friends and advanced year students.
These Communities of Practice empower the individual learner to create their own academic support, and further hack away at the establishment. Don’t you agree?
Let’s face it. This is the generation that grew up on world of Warcraft and Simcity. We gave them the pokemons, the Nintendo DSs, the Halos and the laptops. So no big surprise that our digital millenials have short attention spans and hyperactive fingers.
Nowhere is the problem more acute than in online courses. While bricks and mortar ivies can boast of near perfect 4 year retention (>90%), consider by stark contrast retention in online programs and courses. In a recent study, it appears that retention of 30-40% across the board would be considered good(Cite). And this is when students have paid for the courses. It is hardly surprising that retention in free and open courseware, where learners are accessing the content, without having paid anything, with no fear of exams or grades or other pressures to keep them motivated and in the course, retention is more like 1-2%.
There are many reason we would want to increase the retention numbers for free and open courseware: it is easy to access, completely affordable, and offers a dazzling range of extremely high quality content. Open courses can compensate for example for weak school systems, ill trained teachers, limited course offerings, and rural schools. Can offering badges then provide a solution to the retention problem?
Kids like badges. The concept of badges is intricately woven into the philosophy of gamefication: levels, medals, achievements, finding and hoarding “stuff” as a reward when you attain a level and more. In a learning game framework, a badge that stands for an accomplishment, one that is not easy to attain till a certain level of competency is demonstrated could be very desireable. If the badge can be displayed on the owner’s social networking sites to their friends, it will have even greater value.
Would badges then be the key to keeping our young learners working through MIT OCW 6.00 Intro to Python programming? After all we trained them on World of Warcraft and Pokemon, why not take the next logical step and let them collect badges in their quest for knowledge? Want to hear more about OpenStudy’s take on badges, I’ll be talking with P2Pu and OER U on a panel moderated by Alastair Creelman(@alacre)at the EFQUEL conference tonight. There is a webinar at an unearthly hour for me, but it promises to be very interesting. Check it out.
Under the leadership of C21U Director Rich DeMillo, current Distinguished Professor and former dean of the Georgia Tech College of Computing, GT is offering its first MOOC class. In addition to the GT students taking it for credit, DeMillo has invited everyone and anyone to join in this learning journey with the GT students. The GT course follows the Change MOOC being offered by George Siemens, Stephen Downes and Dave Cormier. What this means is that students of this course will read, discuss, collaborate and otherwise study the content being curated by the trio. They will encounter not only thought leaders from around the world, but classmates from around the world. How will they do all this? Blogs, twitter, posts, emails, and all that and their very own truly global study group on OpenStudy to groupthink and share.
But what a amazingly good idea! Take a few minutes to appreciate the magnitude of this step. Allowing GT students, the traditional registered kind to mingle, partake of, study with, and otherwise co-learn with nonGT and folks from wherever. Has this been done before? Are we not knocking at the traditionally walled gardens of colleges and universities? This folks is a true leadership moment, and both GT and DeMillo are to be commended. It is dangerous territory for a traditional educational institution, untested waters for sure, and like with any disruption, could lead anywhere. Where do you think it will lead?
Access to education is a major problem for most governments. How big is this problem? According to Sir John Daniel (1996), “More than one-third of the world’s population is under 20. By 2006, 100 million qualified to enter a university will have no place to go. To meet this staggering demand, a major university needs to be created each week.” Today, that is about 4 universities a week. Clearly that is not happening. How then do we educate the millions?
OpenCourseWare Consortium (OCWC) and the Open Education movement is addressing this question of access by providing millions access to high quality courses developed in the best institutes of higher learning like MIT and Johns Hopkins. And yet is that enough? Anyone, whether educator or student, knows that learners always need help, and learning alone is, well, boring. In the Gates Foundation “Silent Epidemic” study, 88% of the dropouts studied had passing grades. They could have passed, but even in a school were too bored to finish. When you consider distance or online learning you just ring in the death knell. As George Siemens says of online courses, “Great video and talented presenters. My only complaint: I’d like to interact with others who are viewing the resources. Creating a one-way flow of information significantly misses the point of interacting online.” In the same Gates Foundation study, researchers learned that 47% of dropouts say “classes are not interesting.” Other studies show 60% find video lectures “boring” and 60% read less when using e-textbooks. These are the key problems of education: how to bring help to online learners, how to scale it, and how to add interaction so learners are kept engaged.
In my talk at OCW Consortium Global 2011 meeting last week at MIT, I raised these issues. I talked about the notion of Open Social Learning and how it could solve these two problems. The solutions are based on some wonderful and established work in the learning sciences. Leve and Wenger (1991) proposed the theory of a community of practice where members come together with a common passion or a need to do something, to learn something. In such a community, learning is enhanced through interactions, encouragement, role models and support. Peer-to-peer learning allows learners to help one another, benefitting both the learners and the tutors (Fuchs, 1997). Best of all, it is scalable to the millons.
Our Open Social Learning solution to these three problems of education is therefore elegantly simple. In this solution OpenCourseWare courses are augmented by a community of learners who help one another, support one another and learn together as they socialize and spend time together online. Not only is this solution validated by educational research, it is also eminently scaleable because you are not dependent on hiring tutors or teachers to spend time assisting self learners. The community helps one another. Open Social Learning also fits right in with what our digital millenials want to do: hang out online for hours! Why not get them talking about math instead of … well, let’s not go there.
Meet University of the People. They call themselve’s the world’s first tuition-free online academic institution dedicated to the global advancement and democratization of higher education. I am not sure if they are the first, but there is certainly a lot to admire about them and their CEO, Shai Reshef. For one, I admire is their focus on peer to peer learning as the vehicle for promoting learning. Like most educators, I value p2p learning and so am glad to see a university built on this value. Certainly, as I have been saying, p2p can address the issue of scaling help for e-learning. To think of hiring tutors to help and engage the millions of self directed learners, in this country and globally, is unthinkable. Moreoever, peer to peer tutoring helps both the learner and the peer tutor learn better.
Next, the timing of their classes must win them other admirers. Classes start at midnight! That must seem like a relief for all the bleary eyed teenagers who come to life between 6 pm and 5 am. Most of all, I admire this non-profit’s willingness to take on HE, Higher Education with a capital H and capital E, on their own turf, seeking accreditation to provide a low cost but high quality alternative to a college education. I wish them well on this quest, though it appears to be a daunting one.
After all,we need new models of education and new ways of thinking that challenge the status quo. A model that broadens access and breaks down barriers of geography and cost seems to be a no brainer. Right?